Bio 210      Sample Exam 3       Chapters 12-14



1. The control center for the entire body, which includes the brain and the spinal cord is the:

A. Peripheral nervous system

B. Central nervous system

C. Autonomic nervous system

D. Somatic nervous system

E. Sympathetic nervous system


2. Nerves which convey impulses from the periphery to the spinal cord are:

A. Afferent

B. Efferent

C. Association

D. Ganglia

E. Nuclei


3. Cells which supply support and protection to the central nervous system are called:

A. Neurons

B. Neuroglia

C. Schwann cells

D. Neurolemma

E. Myelin


4. The largest nerve from the sacral plexus is the:

A. Radial

B. Phrenic

C. Femoral

D. Sciatic

E. Vagus


5. Bundles of myelinated neuronal processes in the central nervous system are:

A. Ganglia

B. Nuclei

C. Tracts

D. Nerves      

E. Commissures


6. Cerebrospinal fluid is found in all of the below except:

A. Brain ventricles    

B. Central canal of the spinal cord

C. Subarachnoid space

D. Outside the dura mater


7. Neurons with several dendrites and one axon would be classified by structure as:

A. Multipolar

B. Bipolar      

C. Unipolar    

D. Nonpolar

E. Polar


8. These fibers conduct nerve impulses from the central nervous system to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glands, AND skeletal muscle:

A. Afferent

B. Autonomic

C. Somatic

D. Efferent


9. A bundle of axons or fascicle has a connective tissue covering called the:

A. Perineurium

B. Epineurium

C. Endoneurium       

D. Endomysium

E. Fascia


10. An action potential is generated when a threshold signal reaches the:

A. Cell body

B. Axon terminal       

C. Axon hillock

D. Dendrite

E. Receptor


11. Rapid responses to stimuli in the internal or external environment are:

A. Conduction

B. Reflexes

C. Sensory receptors

D. Sensations

E. Integrations


12. Which of the following does not have both sensory and motor functions?

A. Facial nerve

B. Vagus nerve

C. Vestibulocochlear nerve

D. Trigeminal nerve


13.  Motor areas on one side of the brain control skeletal muscle movement of the opposite side of the body because:

A. The motor cortex is only on the left side of the brain

B. The motor tracts cross at the medulla

C. The motor control is only on the right side of the brain

D. The cerebral hemispheres are asymmetrical


14. There are      pairs of spinal nerves and      pairs of cranial nerves.

A. 31, 12       

B. 30, 12       

C. 62, 24

D. 24, 12       

E. 12, 31


15. Which cerebral lobe contains the visual cortex?

A. Frontal      

B. Temporal

C. Insula        

D. Occipital

E. Parietal


16. The cortex of the upper brain is:

A. White matter

B. Gray matter

C. White and gray matter

D. Meninges


17. Which of the following is derived from the metencephalon?

A. Cerebellum

B. Medulla

C. Thalamus

D. Cerebrum


18. Folds or convolutions which protrude from the cerebral surface are called:

A. Gyri

B. Fissures

C. Sulci

D. Hemispheres

E. Vermis


19. The left and right sides of the cerebrum are separated into hemispheres by the:

A. Gyri

B. Longitudinal fissures

C. Corpus callosum

D. Transverse fissure

E. Central sulcus


20. Neurons that conduct impulses from the central nervous system to skeletal muscle are part which nervous system?

A. Somatic

B. Autonomic

C. Sympathetic

D. Parasympathetic


21. The terminal, cone shaped end of the spinal cord is the:

A. Medulla

B. Plexus

C. Cauda equina      

D. Conus medularis


22. Cells which are excitable and highly specialized for conduction of nerve impulses are:

A. Microglia

B. Neurons

C. Ependymal cells

D. Schwann cells

E. Oligodendrocytes


23. Action potentials are conducted more rapidly when:

A. The axon is myelinated

B. The axon is small in diameter

C. The axon is long

D. The dendrite is thick is diameter


24. The meninges:

A. Are made of cartilage

B. Are included as neuroglia

C. End at the foramen magnum

D. Are connective tissue


25. The action potential can jump at the              on the myelinated axon in saltatory         conduction.

A. Dendrites

B. Nodes of Ranvier

C. Axon terminals

D. Synaptic cleft


26. These supporting cells in the central nervous system form the myelin:

A. Oligodendroctyes

B. Schwann cells

C. Ependymal cells

D. Astrocytes

E. Satellite cells


27. The supporting cells that line the ventricles and aid in circulation of cerebrospinal fluid:

A. Schwann cells

B. Oligodendrocytes

C. Astrocytes            

D. Ependymal cells

E. Microglia


28. A bundle of fibers (axons or dendrites) in the peripheral nervous system are:

A. Tracts

B. Nuclei

C. Nerves      

D. Ganglia


29. The control center for respiration is located in the:

A. Medulla

B. Hypothalamus

C. Cerebrum

D. Thalamus

E. Cerebellum


30. Restoring the membrane potential to the resting state is:

A. Stimulation

B. Action potential

C. Depolarization

D. Repolarization


31. The major ion that moves into the neuron with depolarization:

A. Sodium

B. Potassium

C. Chloride   

D. Magnesium

E. Oxygen


32. Groups of neuron cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system form:

A. Ganglia     

B. Nuclei        

C. Tracts       

D. Nerves


33. The corpus callosum contains which type fibers?

A. Projection

B. Association

C. Commissural       

D. Decussation


34. A neurotransmitter is released at the synapse and generates a depolarization of the postsynaptic neuron. This is a/an:

A. EPSP (excitatory postsynaptic potential)

B. IPSP (inhibitory postsynaptic potential)

C. Threshold

D. Action potential

E. All of the above


35. The emotional brain is called the:

A. Reticular activating system (RAS)

B. Cerebellum

C. Limbic system     

D. Telencephalon

E. Hypothalamus


36. Many blood toxins do not affect the brain because of the:

A. Choroid plexus

B. Blood brain barrier

C. Cerebrospinal fluid

D. Medulla

E. Meninges


37. The cell that is a special type of macrophage to remove foreign matter in the CNS is the:

A. Oligodendrocyte

B. Astrocyte

C. Ependymal cell

D. Microglia


38. Which of the following is true for mature neurons?

A. They have no nucleus.

B. They do not undergo mitosis.

C. They cannot repair.

D. They do not use ATP.

E. Oxygen is not essential.


39. Which of the following is not considered a neurotransmitter?

A. Acetycholine

B. Norepinephrine

C. Dopamine

D. Caffeine


40. The part of the brain specializing in learned skills like typing:

A. Cerebellum

B. Broca's area

C. Premotor cortex

D. Occipital lobe of the cerebrum


41. This area of the cerebrum is often called the speech area:

A. Wernicke's area

B. Gustatory cortex

C. Prefrontal cortex

D. Brodmann's area


42. Cerebrospinal fluid is made at the:

A. Subarachnoid space      

B. Corpus callosum

C. Choroid plexus

D. Meninges


43. In spastic paralysis:

A. Reflex signals from the spinal cord reach the muscle

B. Damage is at the ventral root

C. Damage is at the dorsal root

D. Only the lower limbs are affected

E. Sensory input is not detected but motor signals are sent


44. Which of the following contains only sensory fibers?

A. Ventral roots

B. Dorsal root

C. Spinal nerve                     

D. Ventral ramus      

E. Dorsal ramus


45. Parkinson's like tremors are associated with inappropriate release of which neurotransmitter in the brain?

A. Serotonin

B. Dopamine

C. Acetylcholine       

D. Norepinephrine


46. Basic autonomic reflexes that sustain life are controlled by the:

A. Hypothalamus

B. Medulla

C. Cereburm

D. Pons

E. Thalamus


47. The meninges nearest the brain:

A. Arachnoid

B. Pia mater 

C. Choroids

D. Dura mater


48. Ischemia can lead to neuronal damage due to lack of:

A. Carbon dioxide and glucose

B. Glucose and oxygen

C. Oxygen and carbon dioxide

D. Metabolic enzymes

E. Protein synthesis


49. In the crossed extensor reflex the ipsilateral side is:

A. Flexed       

B. Extended

C. Abducted             

D. Dorsiflexed

E. Plantarflexed


50. The sense of smell is associated with which cranial nerve?

A. I






51. Babinski's sign is normal for:

A. Adults

B. Infants

C. Flaccid paralysis

D. Both a and b


52. The radial nerve is derived from the:

A. Cervical plexus

B. Brachial plexus

C. Lumbosacral plexus

D. Branch of the vagus nerve


53. Two pairs of spinal nerves are associated with the:

A. Cervical vertebra #1

B. Cervical vertebra #7

C. Thoracic vertebra #7

D. Lumbar vertebra #1

E. Coccyx


54. The gray commissure is found:

A. Near the central canal of the spinal cord

B. Connecting the cerebral hemispheres

C. Cortex of the spinal cord

D. Only in the lumbar and cervical regions


55. The anterior groove of the spinal cord is the anterior:

A. Median sulcus

B. Median fissure

C. Ventral horn

D. Dorsal horn

E. Median funiculi


56. The inner portion of the spinal cord contains          matter, while the outer portion is _____ matter.

A. Gray, white

B. White, gray

C. White, white

D. Gray, gray


57. The pituitary gland is attached to the brain by the:

A. Sella turcica

B. Infundibulum

C. Ramus      

D. Cauda equina      

E. Medulla


58. Which nerve is not involved in eye muscle movement?

A. Oculomotor

B. Abducens

C. Optic

D. Trochlear


59. Integration occurs at the:

A. Brain or spinal cord

B. Effector

C. Receptor

D. All of the above


60. Coordination and precise skeletal muscle movement is controlled by the:

A. Cerebrum

B. Cerebellum

C. Medulla     

D. Hypothalamus

E. Thalamus


61. A neurotransmitter that is inhibitory would cause the membrane to:

A. Depolarize

B. Repolarize

C. Hyperpolarize


62. Choose the brain wave pattern with highest frequency and lowest amplitude:









1.What are the components of a reflex arc? You may use a diagram.


2.Give a flow chart for the organization of all branches of the nervous system.