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Bio 210      Sample Exam 3       Chapters 12-14

 

 

1. The control center for the entire body, which includes the brain and the spinal cord is the:

A. Peripheral nervous system

B. Central nervous system

C. Autonomic nervous system

D. Somatic nervous system

E. Sympathetic nervous system

 

2. Nerves which convey impulses from the periphery to the spinal cord are:

A. Afferent

B. Efferent

C. Association

D. Ganglia

E. Nuclei

 

3. Cells which supply support and protection to the central nervous system are called:

A. Neurons

B. Neuroglia

C. Schwann cells

D. Neurolemma

E. Myelin

 

4. The largest nerve from the sacral plexus is the:

A. Radial

B. Phrenic

C. Femoral

D. Sciatic

E. Vagus

 

5. Bundles of myelinated neuronal processes in the central nervous system are:

A. Ganglia

B. Nuclei

C. Tracts

D. Nerves      

E. Commissures

 

6. Cerebrospinal fluid is found in all of the below except:

A. Brain ventricles    

B. Central canal of the spinal cord

C. Subarachnoid space

D. Outside the dura mater

 

7. Neurons with several dendrites and one axon would be classified by structure as:

A. Multipolar

B. Bipolar      

C. Unipolar    

D. Nonpolar

E. Polar

 

8. These fibers conduct nerve impulses from the central nervous system to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glands, AND skeletal muscle:

A. Afferent

B. Autonomic

C. Somatic

D. Efferent

 

9. A bundle of axons or fascicle has a connective tissue covering called the:

A. Perineurium

B. Epineurium

C. Endoneurium       

D. Endomysium

E. Fascia

 

10. An action potential is generated when a threshold signal reaches the:

A. Cell body

B. Axon terminal       

C. Axon hillock

D. Dendrite

E. Receptor

 

11. Rapid responses to stimuli in the internal or external environment are:

A. Conduction

B. Reflexes

C. Sensory receptors

D. Sensations

E. Integrations

 

12. Which of the following does not have both sensory and motor functions?

A. Facial nerve

B. Vagus nerve

C. Vestibulocochlear nerve

D. Trigeminal nerve

 

13.  Motor areas on one side of the brain control skeletal muscle movement of the opposite side of the body because:

A. The motor cortex is only on the left side of the brain

B. The motor tracts cross at the medulla

C. The motor control is only on the right side of the brain

D. The cerebral hemispheres are asymmetrical

 

14. There are      pairs of spinal nerves and      pairs of cranial nerves.

A. 31, 12       

B. 30, 12       

C. 62, 24

D. 24, 12       

E. 12, 31

 

15. Which cerebral lobe contains the visual cortex?

A. Frontal      

B. Temporal

C. Insula        

D. Occipital

E. Parietal

 

16. The cortex of the upper brain is:

A. White matter

B. Gray matter

C. White and gray matter

D. Meninges

 

17. Which of the following is derived from the metencephalon?

A. Cerebellum

B. Medulla

C. Thalamus

D. Cerebrum

 

18. Folds or convolutions which protrude from the cerebral surface are called:

A. Gyri

B. Fissures

C. Sulci

D. Hemispheres

E. Vermis

 

19. The left and right sides of the cerebrum are separated into hemispheres by the:

A. Gyri

B. Longitudinal fissures

C. Corpus callosum

D. Transverse fissure

E. Central sulcus

 

20. Neurons that conduct impulses from the central nervous system to skeletal muscle are part which nervous system?

A. Somatic

B. Autonomic

C. Sympathetic

D. Parasympathetic

 

21. The terminal, cone shaped end of the spinal cord is the:

A. Medulla

B. Plexus

C. Cauda equina      

D. Conus medularis

 

22. Cells which are excitable and highly specialized for conduction of nerve impulses are:

A. Microglia

B. Neurons

C. Ependymal cells

D. Schwann cells

E. Oligodendrocytes

 

23. Action potentials are conducted more rapidly when:

A. The axon is myelinated

B. The axon is small in diameter

C. The axon is long

D. The dendrite is thick is diameter

 

24. The meninges:

A. Are made of cartilage

B. Are included as neuroglia

C. End at the foramen magnum

D. Are connective tissue

 

25. The action potential can jump at the              on the myelinated axon in saltatory         conduction.

A. Dendrites

B. Nodes of Ranvier

C. Axon terminals

D. Synaptic cleft

 

26. These supporting cells in the central nervous system form the myelin:

A. Oligodendroctyes

B. Schwann cells

C. Ependymal cells

D. Astrocytes

E. Satellite cells

 

27. The supporting cells that line the ventricles and aid in circulation of cerebrospinal fluid:

A. Schwann cells

B. Oligodendrocytes

C. Astrocytes            

D. Ependymal cells

E. Microglia

 

28. A bundle of fibers (axons or dendrites) in the peripheral nervous system are:

A. Tracts

B. Nuclei

C. Nerves      

D. Ganglia

 

29. The control center for respiration is located in the:

A. Medulla

B. Hypothalamus

C. Cerebrum

D. Thalamus

E. Cerebellum

 

30. Restoring the membrane potential to the resting state is:

A. Stimulation

B. Action potential

C. Depolarization

D. Repolarization

 

31. The major ion that moves into the neuron with depolarization:

A. Sodium

B. Potassium

C. Chloride   

D. Magnesium

E. Oxygen

 

32. Groups of neuron cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system form:

A. Ganglia     

B. Nuclei        

C. Tracts       

D. Nerves

 

33. The corpus callosum contains which type fibers?

A. Projection

B. Association

C. Commissural       

D. Decussation

 

34. A neurotransmitter is released at the synapse and generates a depolarization of the postsynaptic neuron. This is a/an:

A. EPSP (excitatory postsynaptic potential)

B. IPSP (inhibitory postsynaptic potential)

C. Threshold

D. Action potential

E. All of the above

 

35. The emotional brain is called the:

A. Reticular activating system (RAS)

B. Cerebellum

C. Limbic system     

D. Telencephalon

E. Hypothalamus

 

36. Many blood toxins do not affect the brain because of the:

A. Choroid plexus

B. Blood brain barrier

C. Cerebrospinal fluid

D. Medulla

E. Meninges

 

37. The cell that is a special type of macrophage to remove foreign matter in the CNS is the:

A. Oligodendrocyte

B. Astrocyte

C. Ependymal cell

D. Microglia

 

38. Which of the following is true for mature neurons?

A. They have no nucleus.

B. They do not undergo mitosis.

C. They cannot repair.

D. They do not use ATP.

E. Oxygen is not essential.

 

39. Which of the following is not considered a neurotransmitter?

A. Acetycholine

B. Norepinephrine

C. Dopamine

D. Caffeine

 

40. The part of the brain specializing in learned skills like typing:

A. Cerebellum

B. Broca's area

C. Premotor cortex

D. Occipital lobe of the cerebrum

 

41. This area of the cerebrum is often called the speech area:

A. Wernicke's area

B. Gustatory cortex

C. Prefrontal cortex

D. Brodmann's area

 

42. Cerebrospinal fluid is made at the:

A. Subarachnoid space      

B. Corpus callosum

C. Choroid plexus

D. Meninges

 

43. In spastic paralysis:

A. Reflex signals from the spinal cord reach the muscle

B. Damage is at the ventral root

C. Damage is at the dorsal root

D. Only the lower limbs are affected

E. Sensory input is not detected but motor signals are sent

 

44. Which of the following contains only sensory fibers?

A. Ventral roots

B. Dorsal root

C. Spinal nerve                     

D. Ventral ramus      

E. Dorsal ramus

 

45. Parkinson's like tremors are associated with inappropriate release of which neurotransmitter in the brain?

A. Serotonin

B. Dopamine

C. Acetylcholine       

D. Norepinephrine

 

46. Basic autonomic reflexes that sustain life are controlled by the:

A. Hypothalamus

B. Medulla

C. Cereburm

D. Pons

E. Thalamus

 

47. The meninges nearest the brain:

A. Arachnoid

B. Pia mater 

C. Choroids

D. Dura mater

 

48. Ischemia can lead to neuronal damage due to lack of:

A. Carbon dioxide and glucose

B. Glucose and oxygen

C. Oxygen and carbon dioxide

D. Metabolic enzymes

E. Protein synthesis

 

49. In the crossed extensor reflex the ipsilateral side is:

A. Flexed       

B. Extended

C. Abducted             

D. Dorsiflexed

E. Plantarflexed

 

50. The sense of smell is associated with which cranial nerve?

A. I

B. II

C. III

D. IV

E. VIII

 

51. Babinski's sign is normal for:

A. Adults

B. Infants

C. Flaccid paralysis

D. Both a and b

 

52. The radial nerve is derived from the:

A. Cervical plexus

B. Brachial plexus

C. Lumbosacral plexus

D. Branch of the vagus nerve

 

53. Two pairs of spinal nerves are associated with the:

A. Cervical vertebra #1

B. Cervical vertebra #7

C. Thoracic vertebra #7

D. Lumbar vertebra #1

E. Coccyx

 

54. The gray commissure is found:

A. Near the central canal of the spinal cord

B. Connecting the cerebral hemispheres

C. Cortex of the spinal cord

D. Only in the lumbar and cervical regions

 

55. The anterior groove of the spinal cord is the anterior:

A. Median sulcus

B. Median fissure

C. Ventral horn

D. Dorsal horn

E. Median funiculi

 

56. The inner portion of the spinal cord contains          matter, while the outer portion is _____ matter.

A. Gray, white

B. White, gray

C. White, white

D. Gray, gray

 

57. The pituitary gland is attached to the brain by the:

A. Sella turcica

B. Infundibulum

C. Ramus      

D. Cauda equina      

E. Medulla

 

58. Which nerve is not involved in eye muscle movement?

A. Oculomotor

B. Abducens

C. Optic

D. Trochlear

 

59. Integration occurs at the:

A. Brain or spinal cord

B. Effector

C. Receptor

D. All of the above

 

60. Coordination and precise skeletal muscle movement is controlled by the:

A. Cerebrum

B. Cerebellum

C. Medulla     

D. Hypothalamus

E. Thalamus

 

61. A neurotransmitter that is inhibitory would cause the membrane to:

A. Depolarize

B. Repolarize

C. Hyperpolarize

 

62. Choose the brain wave pattern with highest frequency and lowest amplitude:

A.

B.

C.

D.

 

 

 

 

1.What are the components of a reflex arc? You may use a diagram.

 

2.Give a flow chart for the organization of all branches of the nervous system.